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Instruction for Authors

Original research papers, technical reports, review articles and short communications/ research notes in all aspects of physics, chemistry, computer sciences, geology, statistics, mathematics, management, sports, health, religion etc can be submitted on the grounds that the work described has not been previously published or being considered for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors, or author and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out and that if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form in English or any other language without the written consent of the Editor-in-Chief.

Types of Paper

Regular articles: These articles should be capable of describing recent/new and carefully confirmed findings, and details of experimental procedures should be sufficient for others to verify the work. The length of a full paper should be the minimum required to describe and interpret the work clearly.

Short Communications:

This is suitable for recording the results of complete small investigations or giving details of new models or hypotheses, innovative methods, techniques or apparatus. The style of main sections need not conform to that of full-length papers. Short communications are 2 to 4 printed pages (about 6 to 12 manuscript pages) in length.


Submissions of reviews and perspectives covering topics of current interest are welcome. Reviews should be concise and not longer than 4-6 printed pages (about 12 to 18 manuscript pages). The manuscripts are also peer-reviewed.


  1. Typescript should be on one side of A4 paper leaving a 2.5cm margin on all sides. The manuscript should, preferably, be composed in one column FORMAT using Microsoft Word in Arial font, 12-piont size should be used for the text. Typing should be double spaced throughout the text, including tables, figures, legends, footnotes and references.
  2. The first page should only contain the title, name(s), and academic address (es) of the author(s). If the present address of any author is different it should be given as foot note. Telephone, Fax number and e-mail address of corresponding author should be provided as a footnote. A short running title of not more than 50 characters including spaces should be given on this page.
  3. Full paper should be arranged in the following sequence: Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgement, References, Table(s) and Figure(s). All headings and subheadings should be typed in capital boldface with no punctuation mark and aligned left.
  4. Names should be given in full the first time they are mentioned in the text (e.g Deoxyribonucleic Acid) but can be abbreviated at subsequent mention (e.g. DNA). Spelling should be in English except in quotations and references.
  5. All pages of the manuscript, including the title pages, should be numbered in Arabic numerals.
  6. Information in Table(s) should not be duplicated in Figures and vice versa.
  7. Tables: Table(s) should be numbered in Arabic numerals in order of their mention in the text.
  8. Figures: Line drawings should be submitted in duplicate and photographs should be in the form of glossy black and white prints. Colour photographs can be included at the author’s expense. All graphs should have scale bars inside the graphs. Figures should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals, in order of their mention in the text.
  9. Equations: Equations and Formulas should be numbered separately and sequentially throughout the text. All variables and special symbols such as Greek letters, must be clearly identified and explained, including units when appropriate.
  10. Abstract: An abstract should be concise and preferably not more than 200 words. It should state clearly, the objectives, methodology, the principal observations and conclusion(s). It should be followed by three to five appropriate keywords.
  11. Acknowledgements: Financial or other assistance should be acknowledged in this section rather than in the body of the text.
  12. References: The list of references should include only works that are cited in the text. In the text, a reference identified by means of an author‘s name should be followed by the date of the reference in parentheses. When there are more than two authors, only the first author‘s name should be mentioned, followed by ’et al‘. In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter like ’a‘ and ’b‘ after the date to distinguish the works.
  13. Examples: Smith (2000), Steddy et al. (2003), (Kelebeni, 1983), (Chandra and Shandra, 1992), (Chege, 1998; Cohen, 1987a,b; Trendy, 1993,1995), (Kumasi et al., 2001)

    References should be listed at the end of the paper in alphabetical order. Articles in preparation or articles submitted for publication, unpublished observations, personal communications, etc. should not be included in the reference list but should only be mentioned in the article text (e.g., A. Kingori, University Of Cape Town, South Africa, personal communication). Journal names are abbreviated according to Chemical Abstracts. Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of the references.


    Bueno M, Bruce, Morrow JD, Ranolph MS, Alastair S (1999). Policy Failure and Political Survival: The Contribution of Political Institutions. J. Conflict Resol. 43(2): 147-161.

    Murphy K, Quartly M, Cuthbert D ( 2009). In the Best Interests of the Child": Mapping the (Re) Emergence of Pro-Adoption Politics in Contemporary Australia. Aust. J Pol. His. p. 201-218.

    Ndlovu-Gatsheni SJ (2007). ‘Rethinking the Colonial Encounter in Zimbabwe in the Early Twentieth Century. J. Southern Afr. Stud. 33(1): 173-191.

    Keohane RO (1993). Institutional Theory and the Realist ChallengeAfter the Cold War. Neorealism and Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate. Ed. David A. Baldwin. New York: Columbia University Press.

Manuscript length: Manuscripts for Original research papers should be no more than 12 double spaced pages in length, Short communications/Research Notes should not be more than 4 double-spaced pages in length, including Tables and Figure(s), which should be kept to a minimum. Review papers should be concise (up to a maximum of twenty pages of journal), critical and creative. They should seek to stimulate topical debate and new research initiatives.

Author will be solely responsible for the factual accuracy of their contributions as well as obtaining any requisite permission for publication. The Editorial Board reserves the right to retain all manuscripts sent for publication. The authors are, therefore, advised to keep copies.

Acceptance of papers: Papers will normally be critically reviewed by one or more expert in the relevant discipline and evaluated for publication by editor; however, the editor may return to author(s), without review, any manuscript deemed to be of inadequate quality or inappropriate for the Journal. The views expressed by the referees are forwarded to the author(s) for incorporation/consideration. The decision of the Editorial Board regarding publication of an article is, however, final.

Proofs: Manuscript proof will be sent to the corresponding author, therefore you are advise check e-mail for attachment that would be in Portable Document Format (PDF) file. Manuscript proofs are considered to be the final version of the manuscript. With the exception of typographical errors, no changes will be made in the manuscript at the proof stage. Authors will have free electronic access to the full text PDF of the article. Authors can freely download the PDF file from which they can print unlimited copies of their articles. Also, authors are requested to return their corrected proofs as quickly as possible in other to facilitate rapid publication. Please note that authors are urged to check their proofs carefully before return, since later corrections cannot be guaranteed for inclusion in the published Journal.

Copyright: Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.

Fees and Charges: Articles are not subject to page charges but each accepted article is subject to a manuscript processing fee. Publication of an article in any of our journals is not contingent upon the author's ability to pay the charges, neither is acceptance to pay the manuscript prcessing fee a guarantee that the paper will be accepted for publication. Authors may still request (in advance) that the editorial office waive some of the handling fee under special circumstances.